Kings and Queens

These pictures show the familial relationships between the royal families of Europe. The circular nodes represent kings, queens, dukes and duchesses. The connections represent marriages, ancestor-descendent relationships, and sibling relationships. The clusters are by country; the central cluster with many nodes is England. It is clear that English royals have been highly connected to most of Europe.

The layout was computed using a variation of Tutte’s algorithm. The background, showing the countries, is a Voronoi tessellation.